Category Archives: Research

Wild Madagascar – Adventure to Nosy Mangabe Reserve Speciale – Part One 25/09/16 – 28/09/16

The journey was a long winded one, a full twenty-four hours was lost via shuttle bus (which took nearly 6 hours) and then had to wait till 2am for the Melissa Express boat, a gut wrenching and stomach turning twelve hours of constant rocking and broken sleep that is accompanied by the sound of nearly sixty people being sick into plastic buckets that are provided for this specific reason (Incredibly kind of them – That isn’t sarcasm, trust me).  I do very well on any method of transportation, I can sleep anywhere even in the rainforest on a bed of leaf litter covered in leeches, but the sound of continuous vomiting was a bit much so I got out of my seat and went outside on deck.
The crew were startled at first by me venturing onto the deck but I sat with them, shared some Salto Crackers and had a few laughs with my broken Malagasy, then fell asleep against a very warm metal seal that led to the engine. Eventually, they woke me up once the first light appeared on the horizon an started pointing out the main sights to see, including Mananara – Nord and eventually the islands (Nosy) that lay in the middle of Antongili Bay, this included the beautiful little charming Nosy Mangabe. This island, I have wanted to visit since I was no more than a young boy, a place to tick off my bucket list.

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Nosy Managbe, not photographed on the best of days but that really doesn’t matter! It was like approaching Jurassic Park… © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Unfortunately for us though, we went straight past it, we would have to go to the Madagascar National Parcs office that is situated in Maroantsetra, a city where ships and boats port to relieve themselves of their passengers and stock items.  Eventually, we retrieved the luggage and then made our way via Taxi-Brousse to the MNP office, which I heard was made entirely out of Madagascan Rosewood (Dalbergia maritima), an endangered species of tree  with a deep red coloured appearance which is incredibly expensive due to the rareness of its’ existence, mainly believe it or not attributed to habitat-loss. How that works having the MNP office for Masoala National Parc made out of this, I don’t know, I tried not to think about it too much… But anyway, it was a mission to actually get there, with the Taxi-Brousse driver, who was local and been doing it years, having no idea where the office was and took us to several different hotels before finally understanding the same words I had repeated twelve times. Frustrating, to say the very least. But we got there and that was the main thing and I can totally confirm that the office was made out of Rosewood and  unfortunately I wasn’t allowed to photograph it. But once over the initial awe I had for the building, I walked into the office and began to speak to the head of Eco-Tourism for the area and told her we wanted to be on Nosy Mangabe by Lunch time and she, to my surprise was very happy with this and I was able to arrange all the particulars. I had to state my personal reasons for being on the island and that I was doing data collection on the endemic population of Climbing Mantella (Mantella laevigata) and she stated what I was allowed to do and not to do which included the collection of samples and so on.
That wasn’t a problem, as that is not what I was after and I showed her the equipment I would be using to measure UV, Temperature and Humidity at the specific biotopes for the species which she claimed were numerous.  After an hour of discussion, decision and friendly chatter the boat was secured, a guide called Donna Franklin was assigned to us and we were well underway with the adventure.

To say the very least, I was buzzing and eager to just get moving and after an hour of buying supplies for the four days and three nights we would be upon Nosy Mangabe, we finally boarded the speed boat and left Maroantsetra. It began to rain and it was slightly overcast, now to most people that would be a nightmare for them if they were to go to an island with pristine beaches to bathe upon and it was raining but, not for me.  To me that weather is perfect conditions not just for me but for the animals I wish to see. I am not made for the sun unfortunately and am quite terrified by it, this is mainly due to the incident when I was young which involved the sun and a bed for 2 weeks suffering with severe sunburn and sunstroke. But that’s enough of my childhood dramas, finally we got into Antongili bay and saw the island and the only way to describe how I was feeling would be to say, it was like approaching Jurassic Park and the entire time that famous theme music was just playing in my head as we got closer and closer, until we finally got to the beach which every visitor lands.

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Leaving the main river of Maroantsetra, the biggest town in Antongili Bay. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Most people seemed to be avoiding leaving the safety of the river and coming back from the sea… © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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In the distance, the island! I had the biggest smile on my face at this point. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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As we got closer, I noticed that the reserve was everything people told me it was and more. A island covered in untouched primary rainforest which goes all the way up to the cliff edges. Beautiful. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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We finally arrived at the beach that welcomes it’s visitors too it, where everyone lands. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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A beautiful beach, this particular area has been used in such documentaries as Last Chance to See with Steven Fry. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

I took that giant step off the boat onto the yellow sand covered shoreline, and immediately felt at home and soon after establishing our tent and getting our things together, I ran off like some excited child high on the atmosphere and prospect of not knowing what we were going to find. I stood in the middle of the main camp site, and heard a very familiar sound which I grew accustomed to after breeding them for quite some time in captivity. This was the sound of the resident species of Mantella, I walked to a Bamboo grove which was situated very closely to the Kitchens and immediately got onto my hands and knees, rummaging around, sitting still every so often and paying attention to every sound or movement I saw and heard.

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Tonga Soa eto Nosy Mangabe. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Thankfully and gratefully, they provided translated copies of the writing explaining the rules and regulations of the MNP. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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This would be home for 3 nights, I got very comfortable I can’t deny it. I believe this was the shelter that was provided for Steven Fry. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

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Now, I am not going to lie, I normally have to go on some crazy trips and spend hours trying to find the species of interest to me but this time it was different. Just sat there, were approximately seven different Climbing Mantella (Mantella laevigata) specimens, minding their own business and unaware of my presence in their home. Well, I can be a very emotional man to be brutally honest depending on the situations and I can say without a care in the world to you all that I cried, I had a good old sob whilst on my own seeing something I had wanted to see for more than half my lifetime. It was a perfect moment for me, I didn’t know what to do first, take photographs of the area and the specimens, film footage on my video camera or start collecting the data I required so, I did what was appropriate and started streaming the waterworks.

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Preferred habitat for the Arboreal Mantella (Mantella laevigata) population upon Nosy Mangabe. Everytime you walk through these areas, you will always find specimens in plentiful amounts. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Arboreal or Climbing Mantella (Mantella laevigata) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Once that was out of my system, I was able to go about and do what I do, crawling around on my stomach remembering my favourite phrase “Mora Mora” or in English “Slowly Slowly” , which was drilled into me on my previous trip and to have patience. “Take your time” I whispered to myself , “Don’t mess this up” and eventually I was little more and a foot and a half away from the biggest individual, a female who was surrounded by quite a few males which were calling to their little heart’s content.

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Female Arboreal Mantella (Mantella laevigata) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Female Arboreal Mantella (Mantella laevigata) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Male and female specimens together. The male was in the process of calling out. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

So I snapped away with my Nikon D3100, Macro lens attached and flashing away but after an hour of being still and watching, something else caught my attention in the form of a miniature swift movement. Crickets are everywhere, all over the floor you see flying and gliding movements of them constantly but this was significantly different and I moved closer and looked closer and saw the smallest frog specimen I had ever seen in person, sat on a leaf calling away situated quite close to what looked like a blob of spit between leaves.

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This was the little guy making all the noise, so much noise from a single Thumbnail Frog (Stumpffia sp.) specimen! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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13.5mm in size, from my measurements. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The ventral side of the specimen was surprisingly beautiful. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The potential foam nest from the same species, he was calling very close to it. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

It was little more than 13.5mm in size, possibly 14mm and absolutely perfect in every way imaginable and from the fact it was calling, it was an adult male or perhaps a young male. I picked it up after taking a few photographs of it on the leaf and took a perspective shot of the individual perched upon my thumb then one of its dorsal (Bird’ Eye View), lateral (Side View) and ventral (Underside View) and I must tell you now, encouraging Thanatosis (causing the specimen to play dead) on something this small was no mean feat, but I certainly achieved it. This was a member of one of the smallest genera of Anura on the planet, the Stumpffia genus and after much investigation, I concluded with a few other friends that this is more likely a new species or perhaps one of the two that are currently in the progress of being described. It was incredibly exciting, I had always wanted to see a member of this legendary genus and right there in front of me,  and it was.

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From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

After little more than a few minutes, there was another species of miniature frog, a completely different species jumping around, it was heaven and I wanted to spend all my time there but I knew that it was time for lunch and we had walks planned further into the forest. Before I left the grove though, I noticed a Male Climbing Mantella (Mantella laevigata) on the edge of a Bamboo cane which was filled with water, once he noticed me he leapt from the bamboo and made his way into hiding. I looked into the hollow and it was too dark and I didn’t have my head-torch about my person, so I took a few photographs and told myself I would check later to see whether this bamboo hollow was important to the individual male guarding it.

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Another potentially new species of Thumbnail Frog (Stumpffia sp.) found within the bamboo grove. From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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This measured slightly bigger at 15mm is size. From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

In matter of fact, when I did check this photograph on my laptop, I zoomed in further and saw a tadpole, almost ready to hatch out from its egg that was perfectly positioned next to the water filling the bamboo cane. Seeing this behaviour in the wild, well, it was outstanding. The area however, was swarming with other species of anurans, all living sympatrically without a single thought on the other species.

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The first photograph took, thinking “meh, lets just take the picture anyway as an example.” From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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I took this slightly closer photograph… From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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This was the resulting image of the zoomed in shot. From only 3ft away, it is little more than a speck! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Mantella weren’t the only guys that liked the Bamboo. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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White Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) luteus) with it’s cryptic leaf-like markings. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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I don’t really know what species this is but was interestingly marke almost like a Theloderma. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.????????????

After a hearty lunch, Donna took us along the forest path towards the Fisherman’s huts, near the southern part of the island. One of the guardians of the island, having spent already a month on his own upon Nosy Mangabe, went on ahead of us to do his daily checks and also to scout anything out for us, which included one of the largest species of the Leaf-tailed Gecko (Gekkonidae: Uroplatus) genus, the Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus). Our guide, who shared a huge passion for both Amphibia and Reptilia decided to create a competition between the three of us, who could find the specimen first. Whilst he had the upper hand, I still tried my hardest to spot this animal, having experienced pure frustration to the point of hair pulling in the Perinet region trying to find the local populace of Mossy Leaf-tiled Geckos (Uroplatus sikorae) and Satanic Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus phantasticus) but to be brutally honest, it wasn’t even remotely as difficult. In fact, annoyingly there it was right on the pathway upon a tree perfectly camouflaged (Well, we were looking for it…) against the moss and lichen covered tree bark.

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The view from the beach at the smaller of the two summits. This is the summit which has the Lighthouse upon it that is no longer used. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The edge of the pathway one the trail to the fisherman’s hut. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The path ahead… © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

It was huge, the entire length of the specimen was longer than my hand and  this wasn’t easy to capture within image form. Sat there impressively, he didn’t seem remotely interested or bothered by us, which brought me to the simple conclusion regarding the rarity of the population of Uroplatus in the Andasibe region, there simply are far too many tourists visiting the Mitsinjo, VOI. M.M.A and Andasibe-Mantadia National Parcs causing the specimens to venture deeper into the more secure parts of the Analamazoatra, to non-ventured grounds where they can have peace and quiet.
It was really a bit of common sense, as we were practically all alone upon Nosy Mangabe and prices for visiting the landmark were already high enough, meaning less people venturing into these lush, pristine primary rainforests.

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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) upon its tree, absolutely beautiful and brilliantly blended in. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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As you can see, this was a particularly large specimen! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Typical red lined eyes of the Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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This one still had its original tail. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Obligatory picture, always a must! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Back to my story though, we eventually moved on further along the pathway to the Fisherman’s Huts and I must admit, the island was more than impressive showing already an abundance of different species of Anura, Reptiles and Arthropods from the continuous call of the Mantella populations to the floor being covered in various species including Spotted Digging Frogs (Plethodontohyla notosticta), Thumbnail Frogs (Stumpffia sp.) and even different colourations of  White Forest Frogs (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) luteus) and White-marked Forest Frogs (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) leucomaculatus) “Nosy Mangabe”.

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Spotted Digging Frog (Plethodontohyla notosticta) young specimen, there was millions of the all over the forest floor. You had to go out of your way to not trend on them! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Spotted Digging Frog (Plethodontohyla notosticta). © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Ventral side of the Spotted Digging Frog (Plethodontohyla notosticta). © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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There were ome amazing places to stop, some breath taking. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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White-marked Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) leucomaculatus) “Nosy Mangabe”. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The ventral side of the White-marked Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) leucomaculatus) “Nosy Mangabe”. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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A young White Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Duboimantis) luteus) specimen. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Eventually, we turned back to camp after 3 hours of walking and our guide asked us if we would like to do a guided night walk with the guardians. Now I know for a fact that night walks are actually prohibited in National Parks however, on an island with no one else upon it and the opportunity being given to me on a plate… I could hardly say no, could I!? Of course, like everything in Madagascar I had to pay a fee to the guardians who acted as though this was acceptable, demanding over 100,000Ar per person and a fee for each Guide attending. I politely said no, explaining that I wasn’t stupid and that night hikes weren’t allowed in the first place and offered 50,000Ar and that would be all I would offer. Obviously they accepted this, realising they wouldn’t be able to make me budge on a perfectly reasonable price, so we enjoyed a hearty meal of rice, vegetables and the freshest fish I have ever had caught only 15 minutes before it was prepared.

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This stunning view, marked the end of the afternoons walk. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Dwarf Lemon Orchid (Aerangis citrata) along the walk back, my favourite species of orchid. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved
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Dinner, or will be! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Felt really bad to eat something so beautiful, but it would have been a waste. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

We weren’t alone at the dinner table though, a mated pair of  White-fronted Brown Lemurs (Eulemur albifrons) were sat amongst the branches of the closet trees watching eyes with the classic wide eyes of an inquisitive Lemur. We gave them no food, however whilst we were distracted, they had made their own way into our kitchen and decided to eat our pot of rice that was still on the embers of the fire. Classy.

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White-fronted Brown Lemur (Eulemur albifrons) waiting for us to look away… © 2016 – Joshua Ralph
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White-fronted Brown Lemur (Eulemur albifrons) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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They both managed to find a way into the kitchen!! © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

After a little nap in the tent, we got ready for our night walk and found Donna eagerly waiting for us with a huge smile on his face, the guardians however didn’t even bother looking at us or joining us which showed they were not happy with the fee they were offered, we left without them and got on with our adventure. It wasn’t long though until we came across not just one, but several of the nights herpetological finds! A weirdly marked Nosy Mangabe Giant Stream Frog (Mantidactylus (Mantidactylus) sp. aff. grandidieri) perched itself at the bottom of a slow moving stream with a slight cascade, it stood there as though it was proud of itself allowing me to get reasonably close until it decided enough was enough and leapt up to the top of the miniature cascade and crawled under a boulder which was a common flight display for the species. However, it wasn’t the only animal here, in fact there were animals everywhere acting as if they were completely oblivious to our existence from Hermit Crabs fighting over their individual dug out holes in the ground to Fishing Spiders attempting to capture a freshwater shrimp passing by its hunting grounds.

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Nosy Mangabe Giant Stream Frog (Mantidactylus (Mantidactylus) sp. aff. grandidieri). © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Hermit Crab within its hole. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) specimen we saw earlier that day. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved
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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) specimen © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved

It wasn’t long however, with the dying of last light of the setting sun, till we found a Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) getting ready to start it’s nocturnal hunt. Waking itself up and cleaning its’ eyes by licking them, the first one of the night we encountered was none other than our friend  we found in the day time and now it was dark, he was sporting an entirely new colouration which we simply couldn’t pick up hours earlier. Not far from it however, was a Boulenger’s Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Gephyromantis) boulengeri) with a fantastic colouration that was rather unlike what I had normally came across in the forests of the Analamazoatra, this was a male specimen measuring roughly 26mm from my measurements, calling out from his platform.

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Spider fishing for freshwater shrimp in a stream. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Boulenger’s Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Gephyromantis) boulengeri) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Right Reserved.
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The Ventral side of the Boulenger’s Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Gephyromantis) boulengeri) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Right Reserved.

We ventured on, walking slowly along the pathway, looking just about everywhere for any sign of movement or for a tiniest bit of eye-shine from our head torches. Wasn’t long until a spectacularly coloured and marked Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) appeared out of nowhere on the trees next to us, attempting to run away from us before we even noticed he was there. It was definitely a male as well, mainly due to the fact his Hemipenis (only one, hence why it wasn’t pleural) was out, when we finally caught up with him! That night, I remember we came across not just two Uroplatus specimens but roughly five, which to me is a stupid amount… I am used to seeing probably that number in the course of a few weeks, so this was like a herpetological paradise.

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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) on the hunt. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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A Hemipenis of the Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Frilled Leaf-tailed Gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

As we neared the end of our walk, I had found several more species of anuran, including another weirdly coloured Nosy Mangabe Giant Stream Frog (Mantidactylus (Mantidactylus) sp. aff. grandidieri) and the most vibrant specimens of  Cryptic Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Vatomantis) sp. aff. silvanus).

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Potentially a young Nosy Mangabe Giant Stream Frog (Mantidactylus (Mantidactylus) sp. aff. grandidieri) specimen. © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Spotted Digging Frog (Plethodontohyla notosticta) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Cryptic Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Vatomantis) silvanus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The Dorsal view of the Cryptic Forest Frog (Gephyromantis (Vatomantis) silvanus) © 2016 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

We finished up the nocturnal hike and went back to the camping area, however as long as the past day had been, I just wanted to get back out there and look around. Eventually, I fell asleep ready for the next day ahead.

To be continued…

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Diurnal Hike at Mitsinjo (Analamazoatra) Forest Station – Video.

My first actual day (Excluding the travel day) into my trip to Madagascar whilst doing work at the Amphibian Survival Assurance Center of Andasibe (ASACA), a part of Association Mitsinjo.

After Work, I decided to go out into the reserve and see the wonders that are to be found in the forest, including Pygmy Leaf Chameleon (Brookesia superciliaris).

© 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

 

#AmphibianHero – Joshua Ralph (MantellaMan Conservation) Interview with the Amphibian Survival Alliance.

Red-spotted Bright-eyed Frog (Boophis rappiodes) offspring. © 2015 - Joshua Ralph - All Rights Reserved
Red-spotted Bright-eyed Frog (Boophis rappiodes) offspring. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved

An interview with Joshua Ralph, Batrachologist and Conservationist with MantellaMan Conservation, an Amphibian Survival Alliance Partner.

Amphibians the world over are facing probably the world’s most serious extinction crisis. What are your thoughts on the future prospects for amphibian conservation and preventing further extinctions?

Personally, I find it isn’t entirely productive thinking of what is going to happen or what might happen and you can get lost in the depressing state these animals are in. Instead, looking at the now, the present is more productive… You can’t change the past (unless you’re Marty McFly), but you can change the future with what we do now and how quickly we act to slow down or hopefully, halt the extinctions of hundreds of species.

I won’t deny, I see it like wading through a swamp, every step you take can make you anxious and fill with dread, not knowing if your next step is going to make you sink lower or rise above it. But, if we all work together I think we can get through it, make changes and save some species before they are lost forever to the abyss that is, extinction.

What do you think are some of the most promising developments in the fight to prevent further amphibian population declines?

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Joshua Ralph (MantellaMan) in the Bakozetra locality of the Torotorofotsy Wetlands Reserve with a Yellow Eastern Mantella (Mantella crocea) specimen. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

 Some of the most promising? There are already so many developments in the world that deserve recognition and I think one great example is the Amphibian Survival Assurance Centre of Andasibe facility at Association Mitsinjo. This isn’t just because of the successful conservation breeding of some of the country’s most threatened species of Amphibia, but also for the changes they have made to some of the local towns folk in the region, most of which it has changed their lives entirely.

Some of the staff members at the facility have contributed, in the past, to the decline of certain species of Amphibia but now they are maintaining breeding colonies of threatened species at Association Mitsinjo, performing screenings for Chytridiomycosis in the local areas and most of all, showing others how important it is to maintain their country’s wildlife.

Another development that I think is highly promising, regarding the future of our planets Amphibia, is the increase of the public’s awareness of the demise of these fascinating and beautiful form of life. With social media, awareness events and even in educational curriculums people are becoming more and more aware not only of the risks these animals face, but also about some of the behaviours exhibited and the vast biological diversity that can be found which needs saving.

Why did you join the Amphibian Survival Alliance and what are you doing to help protect amphibians? 

Mantella Man LogowhiteWe joined the ASA to try and make a contribution to the hard work they are already performing and raise even more awareness regarding the demise Amphibian life across the globe with a particular focus on Madagascar, the “island of marvels” as I like to call it.

MMC is dedicated to trying to raise awareness in any way possible, from performing educational talks to writing informative blogs and sharing information. But it has also been created to perform work in situ, by offering help at facilities such as the one found in Andasibe with the husbandry and breeding of these threatened species or even performing research that could itself make a difference.

What can the average person, as well as the private sector, do in order to tangibly and actively participate in amphibian conservation?

Keep on raising awareness, by sharing information even you, yourselves have learnt about regarding these animals and with social media such as Facebook and Twitter, it isn’t exactly difficult to do so. It takes a mere click to share something or but a few moments to have a read into a certain topic.

It doesn’t matter who you are, what age you are, what religion you believe in, you can make a difference no matter how small you believe it to be by continuing to spread information to your family, friends, colleagues and so on.

By Joshua Ralph,
MantellaMan Conservation

Orchids of Madagascar (Andasibe Region)

Hi Everyone,

Slightly different to my regular form of blog entry, normally my posts are very diverse showin all forms of Malagasy fauna and flora. However, this tim I will be looking at one particular topic, the species of Orchids that can be found upon the islands.

The Orchidaceae family, along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants on the planet with Orchidaceae having approximately 27,800 currently accepted species. Like with most of Madagascar’s fauna and flora species, it is home to nearly one thousand different species of orchids—which make up nearly ten percent of the island’s flora—with nearly 900 of them completely endemic. Most of them are known only from few odd specimens or appear to have restricted distributions with small populations. Assessments organised by conservation projects suggest that as many as 70 percent of species are threatened with extinction, but there is insufficient data to make accurate assessments.

Yet again, like the rest of the Island’s wildlife, Orchids are found in almost every habitat on the island, from the mountains to the coasts having adapted to even the harshest conditions.

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Yellow Star Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum rhynchoglossum) at the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Star Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum rhynchoglossum) at the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Star Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum rhynchoglossum) at the Andasibe-Mantadia National Park, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy White Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum chamaeanthus) at Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy White Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum chamaeanthus) at Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Thumb-nail Orchid (Angraecum chamaeanthus) at the Maromiazaha Reserve Speciale. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Purple Terrestrial Orchid (Cyinorchis sp.) from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum sp) not in bloom, from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum sp) not in bloom, from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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© 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Pink Oeonia (Oeonia rosea) from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Pink Oeonia (Oeonia rosea) from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Pink Oeonia (Oeonia rosea) from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Pink Oeonia (Oeonia rosea) from Maromizaha Reserve Speciale, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bosser’s Green Thumb-nail Orchid (Lemurella pallidiflora) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bosser’s Green Thumb-nail Orchid (Lemurella pallidiflora) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bosser’s Green Thumb-nail Orchid (Lemurella pallidiflora) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Cream Single Flowering Aerangis (Aerangis monantha) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Reserve, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Analamazotra Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum analamazotrae) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Analamazotra Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum analamazotrae) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Analamazotra Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum analamazotrae) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Green Ariel Branch Orchid (Aeranthes ramosa) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Reserve, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Green Ariel Branch Orchid (Aeranthes ramosa) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Reserve, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Green Ariel Branch Orchid (Aeranthes ramosa) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Reserve, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Green Ariel Branch Orchid (Aeranthes ramosa) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Reserve, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Bulb Orchid (Bulbophyllum sp.) from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Unknown sp. from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Unknown sp. from Parc a Orchidees, Mitsinjo Forest Station, Andasibe. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
 

© 2015 – The photographs and information written is copyrighted by Joshua Ralph of MantellaMan Conservation.

 

Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca) at Menalamba – Video

Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca), insitu at the Menalamba locality within the Torotorofotsy Wetlands Reserve, eastern Madagascar.

One of the more famous localities for the species, Menalamba (Meaning “Red Cloth” in Malagasy) is a popular eco-tourist spot for Herpetologists and even Bird Watchers.

Only a few days into my trip to Madagascar whilst doing work at the Amphibian Survival Assurance Center of Andasibe (ASACA), a part of Association Mitsinjo, I decided to try and find a species of Amphibian that started my entire lifes work and passion from a young age, the Golden Mantella.

Threats to Madagascar’s Amphibians – Basic Run Down.

 

Over the course of our planets history, thousands upon thousands of species of Fauna and Flora has both flourished and blossomed into marvelous species that can be found today, or they have disappeared off the face of earth, either naturally over the course of time or faced severe threats caused by none other than our very own species.
Homo sapiens throughout its existence, has caused the direct or indirect decline and eventual extinction of hundreds of species and in the past 500 years alone, the number of extinct species was estimated at approximately 869 (IUCN Red List – 2007).

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Bott’s Bright-eyed Frog (Boophis bottae) © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Even today, there are still extinctions occurring and currently, there is an estimated figure of 47,978 species of Fauna and Flora listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. However, even though the everyday ordinary people in the world are aware of the countless projects to save the Clouded Leopard or the Giant Panda, people rarely know or have even heard of the species of Amphibian that are endemic to the island of Madagascar, or even realise the country itself is real or is home to the vast diversity of wildlife. So I think, it would be best to start this article by writing about the island of marvels itself.

Madagascar – In a Nutshell.

 

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Measuring a grand total of 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq miles), it is the fourth largest island on the planet.

Around 88 million years ago, when the prehistoric supercontinent known as Gondwana or Gondwanaland began to separate its land mass into pieces, a small chunk of land measuring 228,900 square miles started to move away from mainland India, this of course is Madagascar. In modern times, it is believed to be one of the largest and oldest islands on earth, and has had more than enough time to create both an amazing array of beautiful landscapes. Being split partly in two by a vast spine of mountains which runs the islands entire length, this has created a unique range of habitats with the Eastern and Northern parts being mainly Lush Rainforests and Swamps, to the Western and Southern lands being a mixture of arid woodland/forests and parched deserts.
With this drastic combination of extended island isolation and varied landscape, it as created some eccentric wildlife, 90% of which can be found no where else in the world, and of this number over 300 species of Amphibia (99.5% of which) are also solely endemic, however more are still awaiting appropriate description and even discovery out of all the species of Amphibia found on Madagascar, 99.5% of them are completely endemic. According to R. G. B. Perl and other researchers, in the article titled “DNA Bar-coding Madagascar’s Amphibian Fauna”, it is listed that just over 500 species are to be found within their country of origin, but it is believed that Madagascar actually hosts a greater amount than above said quantity, by approximately 200 species.

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Undescribed species of Palm Frog (Guibemantis sp. nov.) © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

However, the island is facing severe problems caused by Human Activity, with serious declines in its naturally occurring habitats. It is believed, since the first settling Humans arrived 1500 years ago, the habitats have declined by approximately 90% or more leaving little condensed pockets of National Parks scattered throughout the island and what is even more concerning, is that 40% of the above percentage has in fact occurred in the past 60 years alone. Because of this increased exposure to previously remote landscapes, there are new risks that the beautifully diverse wildlife faces. With risks from highly invasive species such as the Asian Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus) and the deadly fungal infection, Chytridiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis), which has already caused the major decline in most the worlds Amphibian species, these unique species are in dire need.

Habitat-loss – Disappearing Refuges

Across most of the Eastern Coast of Madagascar, a technique of agriculture has been in

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Smoke, from Tavy (Slash and Burn) agricultural techniques in the central mountain region near the country’s capital. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

practice for many, many years causing a drastic decline in the Mantella natural habitats; this method is known as “Tavy” or more commonly as Slash-and-Burn Cultivation. This involves Trees and smaller brush and bushes to be cut down and left to dry out over the course of the winter period when precipitation is at an all time low, and eventually being burnt just before the first Rains arrive. This is mainly to allow the cultivation of Rice or Corn Crops within the regions felled and after only a few years of growing the crops, the people will move on and seek another area to cultivate whilst the previous area is left to fallow.

Due to the incredibly damage this method of Agriculture causes, such as Soil Erosion and destruction of a vast amount of Vegetation, this practice was in fact made illegal, in an attempt to slow the decline of Rainforest within these regions but is still practiced by local peoples to this day. This is mainly because of the lack of realisation and knowledge of the issues that are becoming more and more apparent making the education of locals, a primary aim for a majority of Conservation Organisations.

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In protected reserves, things like this are still a common site, where locals are still cutting down trees. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

However, this is not the only cause of Habitat destruction, simple mining and logging has definitely played a major role in the disappearance of major and vital biotopes which has severely fragmented certain Mantella populations. A prime example of such is the amazing but unusual locality variations of the Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) which exhibits a completely different colouration from its common name, that is in fact Green. This colouration an be found at Ambohitantely Reserve, the Eastern-central region of the island and also at the Zahamena National Park which is in a North-eastern direction from Ambohitantely, making it roughly 188km (116 miles) apart. This goes to show that the habitat loss is far from small, with locality populations being already drastically fragmented from each other.

Chytridiomycosis – The Amphib Killer.

Chytridiomycosis (or commonly known as Chytrid Fungus) is an emerging infectious disease to the class of Amphibians, caused by the aquatic fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). There are numerous Chytrid fungi members that can be found within the class of Chytridiomycetes. A lot of Chytrids are what is known as Saprophytes, fungi living on the dead decaying organic matter, arguably making one of their most important ecological functions, decomposition. However Bd, is very unique in comparison to other Chytrids.

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Team at Association Mitsinjo performing a biannual screening for Chytridiomycosis (Bd) on a common species, Betsileo’s Stream Frog (Mantidactylus betsileanus). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Having been first described in 1999, this new species was found to infect (with much success) Amphibian species. What makes this even more unusual, is the fact it is the only Chytrid to parasitically attack a vertebrate species and furthermore, specifically only Amphibians. It is often highly contagious and infection predominately occurs inside the cells of the outer skin layers that contain large amounts of keratin. As you may be aware, Keratin is what hair, feathers and claws are made of and helps by making the outside of the skin tough and more resistant to injury. The biggest trait that Amphibians predominately have is a Permeable skin, which is highly important for Gaseous exchange that can take place with some of the class it also helps with the absorption of important salts (electrolytes) like sodium and potassium through the skin. Chytridiomycosis, changes that entirely, forcing the skin to become thicker due to Microscopic changes that are known as “hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis”. Abnormal electrolyte levels as the result of Bd – damage the skin causing the heart to literally stop beating and obviously killing the infected animal (Voyles et al., 2009 and in other species that are entirely dependent on their skin to breathe such as Lungless Salamanders, it causes suffocation.
Both fortunately and unfortunately, not all Amphibians die from this fungal infection, with some species being “resistant” to the adverse effects and instead becoming carriers. These species in particular, such as the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis), are of major concern to all Amphibians susceptible to the fungus Zoospores, due to being able to spread the infection further and cause further damage to other populations and of course cause extinction. In approximately only 30 years, Bd has caused the catastrophic decline or extinction (in many cases within a single year) of at least 200 species of frogs, even in pristine, remote habitats (Skerratt et al. 2007) some of them iconic such as the Australian Gastro-brooding Frogs (Rheobatrachus) and the neotropical Golden Toad (Incilius periglenes).

Conservation Efforts & Association Mitsinjo.

In Madagascar, some organisations are already well established, executing projects with already incredible results for the species in question. One of these organisations is Association Mitsinjo, a community-run conservation project which is situated in and around the small village of Andasibe, located within Eastern-central Madagascar. In is abundant is a vast amount of Anura, with approximately 100 species within a 30km radius of the town, 6 of these species are part of the incredibly beautiful Mantella genus.

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The Amphibian Survival Assurance Center of Andasibe (ASACA) at Association Mitsinjo, has already helped majorly in the field of Conservation, especially with their flagship species the Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

As part of the Mitsinjo Amphibian Conservation Programme and Andasibe National Park, a breeding center (the Amphibian Survival Assurance Center of Andasibe) was constructed between the month of November 2010 to March 2011 to allow the captive breeding of certain species to be controlled and the successes to be monitored properly and information recorded for both behaviour and husbandry research. The facility itself is incredibly impressive measuring 185 square meters containing within it, completely bio secure rooms for various captive frog species, live food culturing, Research and even quarantine and isolation facilities, to prevent any potential risks to the already captive populations at Mitsinjo.

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The facility is incredibly impressive, and their wild collected wards have managed to breed incredibly successfully in captivity. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

Conservation however, doesn’t necessarily have to involve breeding animals, it can also involve the simplest gesture, that is raising awareness and even in some case providing education. The Mitsinjo facility also includes an Educational Center which both foreign tourists and locals can visit to learn more about the work performed at the facility, the species found within the Andasibe Reserve and finally threats that affect all wildlife within the Nature Reserve.

Raising awareness for these small and fascinating frogs has even involved Mascots and Festivals dedicated to them, which tends to take place annually at a small village of Ampahitra. Last year, on the 25th of May the Mangabe Festival took place to raise awareness of the Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca) at the protected site of Ranomena-Sahasarotra and has proved to be a successful attempt of trying to get the local communities around the reserve to engage and contribute towards both the habitats and the species that dwell in them. In this instance the Community organizations involved were rewarded for the efforts they carried out for the conservation of Mangabe’s forests from April 2012 to March 2013. This did include regular monitoring of the Golden Mantella breeding areas, the reporting illegal activities to the relevant authorities and even restoring areas degraded by slash-and-burn agriculture or gold mining.

Joshua S. Ralph

 

Malagasy Nature Photographs – Bakozetra locality, Torotorofotsy Wetlands Reserve.

Hi Everyone,

Within this photograph blog entry, I will be in the Torotorofotsy Wetlands Reserve, located north of the town of Andasibe.

Continuing the day that I encountered one of Madagascar’s most iconic species of frog, the Golden Mantella (Mantella aurantiaca), my guide Fanoo and I decided to travel slightly further north to a different part of the Torotorofotsy. Bakozetra is like I said, lies in the northern most parts of the Torotorofotsy and west of the Mantadia National Park and is incredibly well known for its particular locality of Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) which exhibit Red flash marks (Markings situated upon the hind legs as warning markings, one of the methods of Aposematism).

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What is a hugely common sight throughout the region of Andasibe (And elsewhere in Madagascar) is the Rainforest being so drastically fragmented. Like you can see here, forested areas are destroy to make room for Rice paddies and other agricultural purposes. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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We finally got to the outskirts of the Bakozetra locality within the Torotorofotsy Wetlands, certainly was a thicker form of Rainforest. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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I decided that I really, really needed the toilet (This was the beginning of my gastrointestinal illness) and asked where there was one and well, I kind of made that mistake. Covered in flies and stank to high heaven, I ended up going in the bushes! © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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We make our way through the mountain passes, leavin the driver and the vehicle behind so he can drive and meet us at the meeting spot that was decided. However all of a sudden, Fanoo shouts out that there is a Madagascan Lateral Water Snake (Thamnosophis lateralis) amongst the leaf litter, can you spot it in the picture? © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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It was a incredibly beautiful specimen of Thamnosophis lateralis, vibrantly coloured on its undderside and had a colourful attitude with it! © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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The Thamnosophis lateralis, did try to bite me a few times which I strugged off. Getting these photographs was NOT an easy matter as it would quite quickly. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Lateral Water Snake (Thamnosophis lateralis). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Lateral Water Snake (Thamnosophis lateralis). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Lateral Water Snake (Thamnosophis lateralis). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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We eventually started to go down hill and it wasn’t long before I saw my first wild specimen of Orchid from Madagascar and it so happened to be my favourite species, the Malagasy Lemon Orchid (Aerangis citrata). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved
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It was in full bloom with a total of 19 flowers upon a single stem. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Lemon Orchid (Aerangis citrata). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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After another 40 minutes and a bit of daring slippery log walking across a deep and fast flowing stream, we reached one of the breeding sites of the Bakozetra Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) populations. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Once at the breeding site, we started to search around for both the species of Mantella and also other species of Anura etc and eventually came across an intriguing species from the Microhylidae family. This was the Malagasy Climbing Rain Frog (Plethodontohyla mihanika). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Climbing Rain Frog (Plethodontohyla mihanika), which I sexed as a male specimen. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Climbing Rain Frog (Plethodontohyla mihanika). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Climbing Rain Frog (Plethodontohyla mihanika). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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It wasn’t long however, till we finally both came across what we were looking for, there was 5 Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) specimens hopping around the area, clearly enjoying the last of the rains. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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This particular Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) specimen, was not only beautiful and brightly coloured but also was host to a small species of leech as you can see. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” exhibiting what you can clearly see a brightly coloured Flash Mark upon its hind quarters. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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A closer look at the Venter/Venteral (Underside) of the Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea). Showing both an Aposematic underside and hind quarters whilst performing Thanatosis. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) beginning to perform Thanatosis (Playing Dead) behaviour. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Exhibiting Thanatosis still, I was able to some how turn it onto its venter without it jumping away. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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It wasn’t long before we came across another resident of the breeding pond, this was slightly lighter in colouration. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Yellow Mantella (Mantella crocea) “Bakozetra” locality variant. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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After realising we had spent about 2 hours with the Yellow Mantella specimens, we decided it was getting late and it was time to go back. Along the way, we came across a few very young Malagasy Marbled Rain Frogs (Scaphiophyrne marmorata), another member of the Microhylidae family. © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Malagasy Marbled Rain Frog (Scaphiophyrne marmorata). © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.
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Along the floor, on the pathway, there were one or two Giant Pill-Millipedes (Sphaeromimus sp.) © 2015 – Joshua Ralph – All Rights Reserved.

© 2015 – The photographs and information written is copyrighted by Joshua Ralph of MantellaMan Conservation.